Medicines for High Blood Pressure -2021

High blood pressure, or hypertension (HBP or HT), is a condition of elevated blood pressure in the arteries. The list of medicines for high blood pressure is summarized below for you.

Your prescribed medicine may not be found in the list below. But, again, your pharmacist or doctor is your best consultant. Before you change your prescription, it’s better to talk to your doctor.

According to a 2015 survey in the UK, 28% of medicine share was spent on medicines for high blood pressure. At last, it was the most spent share of medicines in that year.

These medicines are also called hypersensitive medicines or cardiovascular medicines.

These classes of medicines for high blood pressure include:

1. Diuretics:

     These medicines help in the removal of excess sodium salt and water. Finally, blood pressure in the arteries decreases. Meanwhile, blood pressure comes to normal value.

  • chlorthalidone (Hygroton)
  • chlorothiazide (Diuril)
  • hydrochlorothiazide (Hydrodiuril, Microzide)
  • indapamide (Lozol)
  • metolazone (Zaroxolyn)
  • Examples of pottassium-sparing diuretics
  • amiloride (Midamor)
  • spironolactone (Aldactone)
  • triamterene (Dyrenium)

This class of medicines for high blood pressure include:

  • amiloride hydrochloride/hydrochlorothiazide (Moduretic)
  • spironolactone/hydrochlorothiazide (Aldactazide)
  • triamterene/hydrochlorothiazide (Dyazide, Maxzide)

Side effects:

   Because of Diuretic medicines, there is a decrease in potassium ions supply in the body. Due to excessive salt excretion, weakness, leg cramps, and tiredness occur.

      Eating potassium containing food can supplement potassium ions. Moreover, gout, diabetes due to increase sugar level, and impotence may occur.

2. Beta Blockers:

       Since beta-blockers decrease heart rate and heart output of blood, so diuretics are used in combination with beta-blockers for great effects. Eventually, their combination leads to better results.

Beta blockers include:

  • acebutolol (Sectral)
  • atenolol (Tenormin)
  • betaxolol (Kerlone)
  • bisoprolol (Zebeta)
  • bisoprolol/hydrochlorothiazide (Ziac)
  • metoprolol tartrate (Lopressor)
  • metoprolol succinate (Toprol-XL)
  • nadolol (Corgard)
  • pindolol (Visken)
  • propranolol (Inderal)
  • solotol (Betapace)
  • timolol (Blocadren)

Side effects of this class of medicines:

      Eventually, these medicines cause insomnia, cold hands and feet, slow heartbeat, asthma and impotence.

3. ACE inhibitors as medicines for high blood pressure:

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) forms angiotensin, which causes narrowing in arteries. Specifically, Angiotensin causes narrowing in the kidneys. As ACE inhibitor medicines inhibit the effect of ACE, by blocking it, so no angiotensin is produced. Furthermore, this does not cause the narrowing of arteries.

  ACE Inhibitors medications include:

  • benazepril (Lotensin)
  • captopril (Capoten)
  • enalapril (Vasotec)
  • fosinopril (Monopril)
  • lisinopril (Prinivil, Zestril)
  • moexipril (Univasc)
  • perindopril (Aceon)
  • quinapril (Accupril)
  • ramipril (Altace)
  • trandolapril (Mavik)

Side effects:

     At last, these medicines cause rashes on the skin, taste loss, dry cough, and kidney damage. Moreover, hyperkalemia (excess Potassium ion) in mothers may occur, which can cause the death of newborns.

4. Angiotensin II receptors blockers:

 This class of medicines for high blood pressure includes:

  • candesartan (Atacand)
  • eprosartan (Teveten)
  • irbesartan (Avapro)
  • losartan (Cozaar)
  • telmisartan (Micardis)
  • valsartan (Diovan)

Side effects:

      As a result of these medicines Dizziness is the main side effect.

5. Calcium Channel blockers:

   In addition to other classes, these medicines prevent Calcium ions from entering into heart’s smooth muscle cells and arteries. Consequently, heart muscle cells do not contract too hard to forcefully pumps the blood in arteries.

 Calcium Channel blockers include medicines:

  • amlodipine (Norvasc, Lotrel)
  • diltiazem (Cardizem CD, Cardizem SR, Dilacor XR, Tiazac)
  • felodipine (Plendil)
  • isradipine (DynaCirc, DynaCirc CR)
  • nicardipine (Cardene SR)
  • nifedipine (Adalat CC, Procardia XL)
  • nisoldipine (Sular)

Side effects:

   As a result, of these medicines, palpitation, swollen ankle (gout), constipation, and head dizziness can occur.

6. Alpha-blockers as medicines for high blood pressure:

    This class of medicines relaxes the muscles of vascular wall. As a result, arteries do not contract and blood can flow smoothly. Finally, it decreases blood pressure.

  • doxazosin (Cardura)
  • prazosin (Minipress)
  • terazosin (Hytrin)

Side effects:

       Increased heart rate and decreased blood pressure while standing are the side effects of alpha blockers.

7. Alpha 2 receptor agonist:

       Generally, these medicines decrease blood pressure by reducing the activity of the sympathetic nervous system (involuntary nervous system).

  • First anti hyper sensitive to use is Methyldopa that has less adverse effects on developing fetus.

Side effects of these medicines for high blood pressure:

Eventually, these medicines cause drowsiness and dizziness.

8. Combined alpha and beta blockers:

     Both alpha and beta-blockers, in combined form, are used for effective treatment. They block the binding sites of both alpha and beta receptors, that cause narrowing of arteries and high blood pressure.

This class of medicines for high blood pressure includes following drugs:

  • carvedilol (Coreg)
  • labetalol (Normodyne, Trandate)

Side Effects:

Side effects include the combined effects of both alpha and beta blockers.

9. Central agonists:

 This class of medicines for high blood pressure reduces the ability of blood vessels to contract, which also helps in reducing blood pressure.

List of central agonists as high blood pressure medicines:

  • methyldopa (Aldomet)
  • clonidine (Catapres)
  • guanfacine (Tenex)

Side effects:

     These drugs may cause a greater decrease in blood pressure while standing or walking.

10. Direct Renin Inhibitors (DRIs):

     Generally, this class of medicines includes the most recent type of medicines for high blood pressure. Similarly, Renin is a chemical present in the body. Eventually, DRIs block the renin effect and widen the blood vessels. As a result, less constriction of arteries occurs. Consequently, it leads to reduced blood pressure.

Only drug e.g. aliskiren (Tekturna), is available in United States.

11. Aldosterone receptor antagonists:

     These drugs work by blocking aldosterone, a chemical that causes water retention in the body. Eventually, by eliminating water content with salt, these medicines can help decrease blood pressure.

 This class of medicines for high blood pressure include:

  • eplerenone (Inspra)
  • spironolactone (Aldactone)

Side effects:

     Furthermore, dehydration and loss of important minerals are the side effects of aldosterone receptor antagonists.

12. Vasodilators

     At first, these medicines cause the wall of arterioles to relax. Moreover, this situation leads to less constriction of arterioles which lowers blood pressure.

These medicines include:

  • hydralazine (Apresoline)
  • minoxidil (Loniten)

Side effects of vasodilators as medicine for high blood pressure :

Some drugs e.g. Hydralazine may cause swelling around the eyes, heart palpitation, or joints pain.

Most frequently asked questions:

What is the best medicine for high blood pressure?

For so long Thiazide diuretics are the first best choice as high blood pressure medicine. It is also the most popular medicine used for hypertension. Furthermore, Thiazide diuretics include chlorthalidone, hydrochlorothiazide, and many more listed above.

What are the natural medicines for high blood pressure?

In particular, Basils, Garlic, Cinnamons, bananas, red beets, and flax seeds are the best natural medicines to reduce blood pressure.

What is the most popular medication for high blood pressure?

Evidently, ACE Inhibitor medications are among the most popular treatments for high blood pressure.

What is the best medicine for high blood pressure over the counter?

 As there are no FDA-approved OTC medicines for high blood pressure, so never take a medicine without the prescription of your doctor.


     To sum up, hypertension or high blood pressure is a prevailing disease. However, the medicines for high blood pressure, listed above, are the most common and widely used drugs. But again, Do not take any medicine related to your symptoms without your doctor’s prescription. Together with taking medicines, learn to manage stress, and avoid too much salty food for better results.

For more articles related to health and hygiene read here.

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